Apr 092017
 

Jane Wisely, Papaver rhoeas, Failand, Somerset, 25th July 1936, from a collection in the RBGE Archives

John Hatley wasn’t at RBGE very long, joining us on 23rd July 1914 as a labourer at the age of 35. Genealogical researcher Garry Ketchen has been able to give us more information about Hatley’s life prior to this. He was born in Edinburgh in June 1879 to glass cutter Francis Hatley and his wife Catherine. John worked as a baker before enlisting in the army in 1896, serving as a gunner in the 2nd Edinburgh Royal Artillery Militia, being discharged a year later when he enlisted as a regular soldier in the 2nd Royal Scots Fusiliers. This led to him seeing action in the South African Boer War in 1899, returning home in 1903. He became a reservist in 1904, finally being discharged in 1909. Possibly amongst other jobs, he became a labourer in a firewood factory before joining RBGE in July 1914.

RBGE records state that Hatley enlisted on the 15th November 1914 as a Private, served for 3 years before being killed in action on the 18th April 1918. Another record says he was a Trooper in the Scottish Horse, was discharged and then re-employed. This is at odds somewhat with official Army records available on Ancestry.com, and, as no Hatley killed in April 1918 can be found in the Army records, and the address that we have in the RBGE records, 7 Church Place, is the same address given for the Hatley we were able to find using Army records, we’ll use these for Hatley’s remembrance, and disregard much of our information at RBGE, though why they are different I cannot say.  Accurately recording this sort of material must have been near impossible at the time.

Page taken from records held at RBGE, showing some of the information held about our WW1 soldiers

I love the details we can sometimes find in the Army Service records where they still exist (many were lost in the WW2 Blitz); in Hatley’s we can see that he was 5ft 9¼ inches tall and had tattoos including a snake on his right arm and flies on the base of his thumbs.  His eyes were grey and he had brown hair. He had three older brothers and a sister.  We can see that John Hatley enlisted with the 1st Scottish Horse on the 26th August 1914 (this regiment ties in with RBGE records) but was discharged in September due to him being medically unfit to serve.  He enlists again on the 8th December 1914, this time to the 16th Royal Scots. The brother closest to him in age (albeit around nine years older) seems to have enlisted with him on the same day as there is a Francis Hatley listed next to him in the Royal Scots medal roles, their service numbers one digit apart.  We know Francis survived the war, but is in hospital in 1921, so it may be that he didn’t manage it unscathed.

After enlisting with the 16th Royal Scots, Hatley spent just over a year travelling to various barracks across the U.K. to complete his training. He seems to have had other things on his mind as he is reprimanded and punished (usually by being confined to barracks, a minor punishment) over and over again for leaving the barracks without permission, usually between 9:30 and around 10:30 at night. It was the name of one of the men doling out one of the punishments that alerted me to the significance of the unit that Hatley had joined – Col. Sir George McCrae. Hatley had joined ‘McCrae’s Battalion’, one of the new battalions created by Lord Kitchener in the first months of the war. McCrae’s Battalion was the first ‘footballers’ battalion’, as it was largely composed of footballers and sportsmen, encouraged to enlist by a burgeoning sentiment that the playing of sport could wait until the more important duty of winning the war was undertaken. Perhaps Hatley, already discharged for being medically unfit, and his older brother in his mid-forties, were whipped up into trying again by the fever surrounding the charismatic George McCrae who encouraged hundreds to enlist with an inspired publicity drive which included rallies, speeches, marches and a recruiting station placed strategically close to Heart of Midlothian’s football ground.  On Monday 8th December 1914, the day Hatley enlisted, McCrae had recruited 1,120 volunteers who officially became known as the 16th (Service) Royal Scots Battalion, but the men preferred to be known as ‘McCrae’s’. On 12th December, McCrae declared recruiting closed and ordered the Battalion to mobilise three days later (‘McCrae’s Battalion’, J. Alexander, p.86).

Hatley’s name on the RBGE War Memorial at 20a Inverleith Row

After spending just over a year in Britain training, Hatley enters the theatre of War in Europe on the 8th January 1916. He is wounded in the field on the 14th July 1916, the day the 16th Royal Scots assaulted Bazentin Ridge during the Battle of the Somme. On the 20th December he is admitted to the Field Hospital with a sprained ankle received whilst carrying a load along a paved road. He spends some time at a rest station before rejoining his unit on the 10th January 1917.

The Battalion are beginning to prepare for the next major offensive at this point. Their training and drilling was continual as they marched towards the town of Arras. When they reached it in March, it felt to them as if the hard work was just beginning with some arguing that although a rest was what they needed, what they got instead was more drilling and plenty of digging. Trenches and tunnels were being dug from which to launch the attack which eventually happened on the 9th April, a day after Easter Sunday.

The British Army was responsible for a 14 mile stretch of the front line and McCrae’s Battalion were just to the north of Arras, aiming for a high grassy ridge upon which sat the ruins of Point du Jour farm. The plan was to heavily bombard the German trenches for weeks before the attack with the bombardment increasing to a firestorm for the final four days. The men were then to cross No Man’s Land taking the trenches one by one following a timed schedule meaning that each one could be bombed before the men arrived to capture it. At 4:30am on the 9th April the men began to line up in the trenches dug to launch the attack. It was pitch dark, freezing cold and raining and they found their positions with difficulty. Soon the bombardment began and it defied description – it could be heard and felt in the south of England. The men went over the top at 5:30 precisely and made swift progress, apparently crossing the first three enemy trenches in ten minutes. They soon advanced ahead of schedule meaning many were caught in the timed barrages.

McCrae’s Battalion along with other units in the 34th Division took the trench referred to as ‘Blue Trench’ at 7:15am at which point they were to pause to consolidate and allow the 15th Royal Scots to leapfrog through and continue to attack onwards towards the ridge. It sounds as if all of this was plain sailing, but all around the men shells from both sides were crashing down, and there was plenty of resistance left in the German trenches – they were continually exposed to machine gun fire both from ahead and behind. Field Marshall Haig considered the day a success however, writing in a letter to King George V:

“Your Majesty will be pleased to hear that I found the troops everywhere in the most splendid spirits and looking the picture of health. The marching and the joy of operating in the open at last and above all, the fact that the Army was advancing made everyone happy!… The change to open warfare has especially benefitted the Australians: indeed they seem 50 per cent more efficient now than when they were in the trenches…
I am writing this… while the Battle for Vimy Ridge etc. is going on. Everyone is so busy today that I have managed to get a leisure hour for writing a letter! I came here last night so as to be near the HQs of Generals Horne and Allenby [Allenby was in charge of the section Hatley was fighting in]…
The attack was launched at 5:30am, and has progressed most satisfactorily. Indeed, at the time of writing (3pm) the several lines have been captured according to the timetable and a large number of prisoners have been taken; probably 10,000 when all are counted! Our success is already the largest obtained on this front in one day.” (Douglas Haig: War Diaries and Letters 1914-1918, p.278)

The first day of the offensive at Arras could be considered a success. The Army did make significant advances that day, planes in the sky were now being used to spy on the opposing troops and the bombardments were becoming more efficient at cutting through barbed wire rather than just blowing it up into the air. The commanding officers were learning from mistakes made during previous battles, but there was still a long way to go. Tanks were now in use but they were slow, attracted enemy fire and being in them was like sitting in furnace that could explode at any minute. Beyond the land taken was the Hindenburg Line, the new system of fortified trenches that the Germans had been working on for the last seven months – all this lay ahead for the battle weary Allies.

The Arras Memorial at Faubourg-d’Amiens Cemetery, Pas-de-Calais, France. Photo by the War Graves Photographic Project, www.twgpp.org

Arras was a reasonably quick battle. After the quick progress of the first day lay another 38 days of slogging it out that we can compare to the 141 days of the Battle of the Somme that had preceded it. Total casualty numbers were therefore lower: 159,000 at Arras, 415,000 at the Somme. If you look at the daily death rate though, 4,076 at Arras, 2,943 at the Somme, it can be appreciated that of all the offensive battles launched by the Allies during World War One, Arras was by far the most lethal (‘Cheerful Sacrifice‘, Nicholls, pp.210-1). It also saw the highest concentration of Scottish troops involved in any WW1 campaign with 18,000 Scottish deaths recorded (BBC News). Amongst those was Private John Hatley. He was noted as being missing when the roll call was made on the return to Arras by the McCrae’s. Eventually he was “accepted for official purposes as having died on or since” the 9th of April, the first day of the battle. His body was never recovered, but he is remembered on the Arras Memorial at Pas-de-Calais, France, and on the memorial in the reception at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.

My thanks again go to Garry Ketchen for allowing me to use his genealogical research in this series of blogs, and to Steve Rogers at the War Graves Photographic Project, for allowing me to use their image of the Arras Memorial.

References
Jack Alexander, “McCrae’s Battalion: The Story of the 16th Royal Scots”, 2004, Mainstream Publishing, Edinburgh
Jonathan Nicholls, “Cheerful Sacrifice: The Battle of Arras, 1917”, 2010, Pen and Sword Books, Barnsley
Gary Sheffield and John Bourne (eds.), “Douglas Haig: War Diaries and Letters 1914-1918”, 2005, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London
Army Service records available at Ancestry.com

Mar 032017
 

The Black Watch Museum in Perth

When war began in August 1914, whilst most of RBGE’s male staff were joining the Royal Scots and the Cameron Highlanders, two of our staff members enlisted in the Black Watch. Based in Perth, and with origins that can be traced back as far as 1725, the Black Watch had the reputation of producing particularly ferocious soldiers, each having the honour of wearing the red hackle on their tam o’shanters.

The two men in question are Thomas Aird, who joined the 11th Battalion of the Black Watch on the 16th November 1914 and Thomas Young who enlisted in the 1st Battalion Black Watch on the 5th August 1914 – a day after war was declared.

Unfortunately neither of these men have left many records, nor records easily attached to themselves, but we’ve been able to piece some pieces of information together, mostly thanks to help received at the excellent Black Watch Museum in Perth and researcher Garry Ketchen, who I’m again grateful to for allowing me to use his genealogical research.

Aird’s name on the RBGE Memorial

Thomas Aird’s name appears on the RBGE War Memorial, so we know he numbers amongst RBGE’s 20 members of staff at the start of the war that were killed, but his date of death for some reason was not recorded on our Service Roll. During a visit to the Black Watch museum we discovered his name, his service number (S/6773) and the information that he was killed in action on the 3rd March 1917. Garry Ketchen, who has researched the men appearing on the RBGE War Memorial, also discovered this information along with the fact that Aird was born on the 25th July 1878 to Hamilton and Agnes Aird in Kirkmichael or Kirkconnel, Ayrshire. He also discovered that Aird was employed as a colliery fireman before he began work at RBGE on the 11th May 1914 as a Labourer. Although Aird enlisted with the 11th Battalion of the Black Watch, one of the new battalions set up in October 1914 to take the huge numbers of new recruits joining in the early months of the War, it soon became a reserve battalion with members being sent to bolster others on the Western Front. It appears Aird was transferred to the 1st Battalion in January 1916 after completing his training. He therefore would have been active in the Battle of the Somme which began in July of that year. We know from RBGE records that he was wounded once.

Aird’s name on the Black Watch memorial in Perth

By looking at the Battalion diaries available on Ancestry.com we can see where Aird was when he was killed. The Battle of the Somme was still raging at the time and the 1st Black Watch were to the south of the river. On the 3rd March they moved from Assevillers to huts and billets at Chuignolles. Prior to this they had been spending short periods on the front line and in training, staying nearby to offer support when needed. There was no mention of any action or death on the 3rd March, only a tally at the end of the month: 1 Officer wounded, 17 O.R. [Ordinary Ranks] ditto, 2 O.R. died of wounds and 3 O.R. killed. Aird’s pension records show that he was killed in action, so presumably he was one of the last three, probably in the wrong place at the wrong time.

Thomas Young, on the other hand, survived the war.  We know he joined RBGE on the 24th April 1914 as a Patrolman (presumably a cross between a policeman and a security guard) and was immediately called up to Aldershot to join the 1st Battalion of the Black Watch becoming one of the first soldiers to cross the English Channel as part of the British Expeditionary Forces, all of this hinting at a previous spell in the army.  He would have been involved in many of the major battles of the First World War including Mons, Ypres, Loos, the Somme, Passchendaele and finally the storming of the Hindenburg Line at the end of the War. At the Black Watch Museum I was made aware of the Black Watch’s history, written by Major-General A.G. Wauchope. In it is a list of 30 men who were part of the 1st Battalion mustered at Aldershot at the beginning of the War and who were still in the 1st Battalion when the war ended in November 1918. The name Private Thomas Young is on that list, and it may well be that he is RBGE’s Thomas Young, in which case the Black Watch Museum know that he had originally joined in 1905 and would indeed still have been on reserve in 1914. I was shown an image of the 1st Battalion at Aldershot as they were about to depart – Thomas Young would have been one of those many men and it was sobering to think that just 30 of them were still in the same battalion for the Armistice (although reserves continually bolstered the battalion of course). At present we know nothing more about Thomas Young. He did not return to RBGE after he was demobilised on the 22nd February 1919.

Photo of the 1st Black Watch in Aldershot, August 1914, with kind permission from the Black Watch Museum.

We can look at the 1st Battalion diary for the end of the War though, and get a sense of the atmosphere at the time the men of the 1st Black Watch were being demobilised. Major Fowler was the one Officer also present on the list of 30 men surviving in the 1st Battalion from the beginning to the end of the War:

“On the 24th [February] Maj. And Q[uartermaster] W. Fowler M.C. left the Battalion to proceed for duty at Bisley. After over 35 years service in the Regiment, and continuous service, without a break with the Battalion throughout the war, his departure was a matter of great regret to everyone, and the high esteem in which he was held by all was impressed by the voluntary turn out of the Battalion to escort him to the station. Both the Pipe and Brass Bands were in attendance. On reaching the station, the Brass Band played ‘Auld Lang Syne’, after which Major Fowler addressed the Battalion and said good-bye. As the train moved out of the station, the pipers played ‘Scotland the Brave’, accompanied by much cheering.” wrote Lt. Col. J. Anderson.

We can also read the farewell given to the men by Brigadier General L.L. Wheatley when the 1st Infantry Brigade was disbanded on the 25th March 1919:

To Brigade Headquarters, 1st Battalion The Black Watch, 1st Battalion Royal North Lancashire Regiment, 1st Battalion The Cameron Highlanders, and the 1st Trench Mortar Battery. “The Brigade is about to break up. For your loyalty in the past I thank you, for the present I say Good-bye, and for the future I wish you good luck. It has been the proudest six months of my military service to have had the honour to command you.”

With thanks again to Garry Ketchen and to Richard McKenzie at the Black Watch Museum.

Feb 272017
 

In researching those past members of RBGE staff who enlisted and were killed during the First World War I’m aware of all those who enlisted and survived the war, having served their time in the trenches – those that never received a mention on any war memorial but tolerated many of the same experiences including the fear, pain and discomfort we so often associate with trench warfare. Ironically, it can be these survivors that can be harder to research, but an opportunity to look at one of them, John Richard Ferisy, arose recently when he became the subject of an enquiry sent to the library at RBGE. The enquirer was a medal collector who had come across a couple of medals with Ferisy’s name (or his ‘alias’ Ferguson) inscribed on them. During his research he discovered that Ferisy had worked at RBGE as a timekeeper and so he asked if we had any more information about him.

Unfortunately, information about our labourers (Ferisy’s job title) at this time is scarce and scattered, but between the two of us, using sources like the RBGE Guild journals and census and military information available via ancestry.com, we were able to piece together the following:

John Richard Ferisy was born on the 27th February 1869 in Edinburgh. His parents were Sophia (née Watson) and William Ferisy, who was a gardener, and he was brought up with his brothers and sisters in a small thatched farm cottage called Forest Hall just north of Craiglockhart in the parish of Colinton. Ferisy’s military records tell us that he joined the army, specifically the 2nd battalion of the King’s Own Scottish Borderers (KOSB) in 1889 at the age of 19 (which calls into dispute either the age he gave when he joined up or his birthdate, but only by one year), stating he was a mason prior to this. He was involved in the 1895 ‘Relief of Chitral’ campaign on India’s northwest frontier and was therefore awarded the 1895-98 India General Service Medal; our medal collector has obtained this medal, but not the Queens South Africa medal that he also would have been entitled to when he was recalled from the reserves four years later to serve in South Africa with the 1st Battalion KOSB during the 2nd Boer War between 1899 and 1902.

Ferisy joined RBGE in December 1913 as a labourer, but re-joined the army again on the 28th August 1914 when the First World War began, initially with the 6th Battalion KOSB and then the Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) with the latter service in India, thus sparing him the horrors of the trenches towards the end of the war. His South Africa and WW1 medals are yet to be located and our collector would love to re-unite them.

RBGE records back up what the medal collector discovered from Ferisy’s military service records, his retirement notice in our Guild Journal stating:

“John Richard Ferisy, …a South African veteran, joined the Garden on the 8th December 1913 and served in Flanders and India during the Great War. He was a familiar figure to many past members, as he fulfilled the duty of timekeeper at the Works Entrance for a number of years. The appreciation of the Staff was expressed by the presentation of a cheque upon his retirement on 27th February 1934.”

The next time Ferisy gets a mention in the RBGE Guild Journal (apart from his appearances in the Guild member lists, the RBGE Guild being a society of past and present members of staff, allowing everyone to remain in touch) is when he dies: “Obituaries… John Ferisy, Edinburgh, in April 1939”. He would have been 70. He does however receive further mentions, in the early 1980s, when past members of staff were asked to recall their memories of working at RBGE for inclusion in the Guild newsletter.

Cartoon drawn by Jock Scott in 1936 showing Patey at the gate – he was Ferisy’s successor.

Ferisy’s first mention is from Frank Knight, a probationer gardener originally from Cornwall who was at RBGE between 1919 and 1923- he said:

“I was soon the object of much curiosity, “had they seen the wee red-headed probationer from N. Cornwall with a dialect like Uncle Tom Cobley and Jan Stewer and all?” I had one champion and that was Jock Ferisy, who was in charge of the back gate. During his army career in the KOSB he had for a time been stationed in Crown Hill barracks, Plymouth, and could say with not too bad an accent, “up along and over”, a local saying that he had picked up in the Plymouth pubs.”

His second mention was from another former probationer gardener, Tom Grieve, who was at RBGE between 1928 and 1934 who said:

“in my time, at least two probationers were dismissed for getting married, and no married applicant had a hope as a prospective probationer. We started work at 6am and the Gate was closed 5 minutes after, and, if late, we lost two hours pay until breakfast which made quite a hole in our weekly wage of £2:2:2d. Jock Ferisy at the gate used to look out and hurry us up if we were in sight. How we puffed up the lane. Good old Jock. Many a pint did we buy him (2½p), old soldier he.”

His name doesn’t appear on any memorial here, but I like to think that thanks to email enquiries, researchers, information gleaned form historic records and outlets such as Botanics Stories we can remember men like him.

Dec 122016
 

The Library at the Botanics has recently acquired a new member of staff – or should that be an old member of staff?  Certainly an old member of the Botanical Society of Scotland…

William Brand's bust in its new home at RBGE

William Brand’s bust in its new home at RBGE.  It was sculpted in 1860 by William Brodie R.S.A.

We were contacted recently by the curator at the Bank of Scotland, looking to rehouse some of their less well used artworks – could more appropriate homes be found for them? When looking to rehouse the bust of William Brand WS, the Secretary of the Union Bank of Scotland between 1846 and 1869, research showed he had botanical connections, and so we were contacted.  Of course we said yes!

Born in 1807, the son of a farmer at Blackhouse, near Peterhead, William Brand was initially educated in parish schools before being apprenticed to Writers (solicitors) in Peterhead then in Edinburgh where he entered legal classes at the University.  Having completed his legal education he became a Writer to the Signet in 1834 and a partner in the Edinburgh firm of Scott, Findlay and Balderston. In 1846 he was elected Secretary to the Union Bank of Scotland, a position he held until his death. In 1863 he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

But what are his connections to RBGE?

The 1830nEdinburgh University Botany Class Lists, showing Brand's name (50)

The 1830 Edinburgh University Botany Class Lists, showing Brand’s name (50)

Whilst completing his medical degree at Edinburgh University, Brand developed a strong interest in botany, accompanying Professor Robert Graham (Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Professor of Botany at Edinburgh University) on collecting excursions throughout Scotland during 1830 and 1831.  In 1836, when meetings were being held to discuss the creation of a new Botanical Society, Brand was there.  He attended the inaugural meeting of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh on the 8th February 1836 making him a founding member and also logical choice for its first Treasurer.  He developed ideas for a number of Society publications, devised methods for arranging and cataloguing the Society’s herbarium and collected a significant herbarium collection himself, discovering several new plants including Astragalus alpinus in the process.

Photograph of William Brand taken in 1865. From the Botanical Society Club Album.

Photograph of William Brand taken in 1865. From the Botanical Society Club Album.

He was also a member of the Botanical Society Club, an offshoot of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh initially comprising its original members, becoming its Secretary.  At the last Club meeting he attended, in June 1869, he complained of feeling ill.  After a couple of months he recovered enough to visit relatives in Peterhead, but became ill again on his return home, dying on October 15th 1869.  He left behind a widow, a son and two daughters.

John Hutton Balfour describes Brand in his obituary, published by the Botanical Society in 1870:

Mr Brand was a person of great energy and vigour, a shrewd and intelligent observer, an excellent and fearless cragsman, capable of enduring great fatigue, and of accommodating himself to all the discomforts which might happen during excursions.  His happy and cheerful disposition rendered him a most pleasant companion; whatever occurred, he was never out of temper, but on all occasions was a true peace-maker.

The bust itself was sculpted by William Brodie R.S.A. in 1860 and is now on display in RBGE’s Library at 20a Inverleith Row.  We’re very grateful to Douglas MacBeath, curator at the Bank of Scotland for offering the bust to us.  It is a reminder that without the Botanical Society of Edinburgh (now Scotland), RBGE’s Library, Archive and Herbarium collections would not be of the high standard that they are today as it was the Society’s collections that became the foundation of our own.

List of the original members of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh

List of the original members of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Brand 6th on the list

Jul 292016
 
Will Hinchliffe climbing 19241022*A for fertile material

Will Hinchliffe climbing 19241022*A for fertile material

One aspect of the Sibbald funded verification project I’m involved with at Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh is the identification of plants that are currently growing in the garden without a species name.

One of these plants was a 1924 collection of Quercus collected by G.H. Cave in Sikkim, who was the director of the Llyod Botanic Garden in Darjeeling. After 92 years, as my colleague Robert Unwin said when he pointed out the tree, “its about time it got a name.”

At the first inspection of the tree, on Monday, there were no obvious flowers or fruits and what was most striking was that the leaves were not lobed or serrated as Oaks so often are.

A quick look at the Flora of Bhutan account for Quercus and related genera found in Sikkim keyed out to the genus Lithocarpus because of the entire margin to the leaf, but flower and fruit would be needed to successfully get a species ID for tree. After going back on Tuesday morning with a pair of binoculars to scan the crown, a request was put to our arboriculture team to climb the tree so they could collect the male inflorescence and any fruit that were up there.

On Friday morning, Will Hinchliffe one of our tree climbers shimmied up the tree and collected some male flowers spikes and immature acorns. A trip to the herbarium with the flowering and immature fruiting material quickly resulted in an identification of Lithocarpus elegans.

Immature acorns of Lithocarpus elegans

Immature acorns of Lithocarpus elegans

A male inflorescence of Lithocarpus elegans

A male inflorescence of Lithocarpus elegans

To round off the process and to see if we could add anything to the scant accession record we looked in the 1924 accession book held in the archive. In January of 1924 Cave send RBGE seed of 4 species Quercus, three failed to germinate and the only one that did was Quercus spicatus. Which turns out to be an old name and illigitimate name for Lithocarpus elegans.

It turns out to be a rare tree in cultivation, the BGCI search only yielded 4 other botanic garden collections in the world that list it as growing. What is even more astonishing is that Lithocarpus elegans is found at relatively low altitudes (maximum of about 2000m) in warm temperate and sub-tropical forests of the Himalaya, and by no stretch of the imagination can Edinburgh’s climate be described as either. The secret to its persistence and the reason that it probably went without a name for so long is that its growing in a sheltered unassuming spot in the back of the woodland garden.

Quercus species listing in Cave's 1924 seed lists with annotations about what germinated.

Quercus species listing in Cave’s 1924 seed list with annotations about what germinated.

The whole process nearly used the full spectrum of the Botanics’ institutional knowledge and expertise: the arboricultural abilities in the Horticulture division safely collected the plant material for identification, plant records and the archive highlighted the history and provenance of the plant and then the library and herbarium collections helped identify and ultimately give the tree a name.

It has also resulted in the odd situation where despite the tree being grown for the past 92 years we have just added a “new” preciously uncultivated species to the living collection.

The botanical wheels turn slowly, but it really is worth it

Jul 012016
 

The Battle of the Somme commenced at 7:30am on the 1st July 1916, an offensive lasting for 141 days of blood, mud and horror. The first day stands out in terms of casualties as one of the worst days for the British Army – 57,470 casualties, including 19,240 fatalities. The objectives of the offensive were to take pressure off the French army who were at that time engaged in a vicious battle with the Germans at Verdun by attacking the Germans to the north of this, and in doing so attempt to capture the plateau between the rivers Somme and Ancre.

Photograph of James Hamilton Dick and John Anthony (both 2nd Lieutenants at the time) on the Somme in 1916. Both were to win Military Crosses by 1918.

Photograph of James Hamilton Dick and John Anthony (both 2nd Lieutenants at the time) on the Somme in 1916. Both were to win Military Crosses by 1918.

Considering the length of the battle and the number of Scottish battalions involved, it must be that many men listed on RBGE’s Roll of Honour were involved in this offensive although it is hard to say who – with many battalions being merged and assigned new names and men leaving battalions to reinforce others at this time it becomes more complicated to follow our soldiers’ progress in the War. I do know that we have no fatalities at all listed during the period of the Battle of the Somme, so it must be concluded that although it’s possible there may have been men wounded, none of our staff who left RBGE at the beginning of the War to join the army were killed at the Somme in 1916.

In our Archive collections however, we do have a small album of photographs of soldiers, one of which is titled “Capt J.H. Dick M.C., Capt J. Anthony M.C., On the Somme 1916”, so it seems timely to look at this album now (although I’m reasonably sure neither men were sent to France until September 1916). There are many names in the album, so it was only fairly recently spotted that the album was put together by John Anthony, or perhaps a member of his family as he is referred to within as ‘The Hero’ which by all accounts of his modesty, doesn’t sound like a name he would have used for himself!

Our hero, John Anthony

Our hero, John Anthony

John Anthony was born in Edinburgh in December 1891. He attended Boroughmuir and George Heriot’s School, entering the University of Edinburgh in 1911 to read Arts and Science. His studies were interrupted with the outbreak of war in 1914 and he joined the University’s Officer Training Corps as a cadet in 1915. In October 1915 he joined the 5th Royal Welsh Fusiliers as a 2nd Lieutenant and was promoted to Lieutenant in in July 1917. He became an Acting Captain in August 1917 when he was attached to the 7th Royal Warwickshire Regiment to command one of their Companies. It was shortly after this time that Anthony was awarded a Military Cross (the M.C. referred to on the Somme photograph above) for conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty – he took command of his Company during a night time relief in Italy when during heavy shelling the officer in charge was wounded. Anthony quickly reorganised the section and was able to drive off two enemy attacks on advanced posts thus saving lives and maintaining the position of the line.

.

Anthony and his fellow cadets at camp, possibly in Peebles in 1915?

Anthony and his fellow cadets at camp, possibly in Peebles in 1915?

Altogether John Anthony spent eight years in military service, fighting on the Western Front in France, and also in Italy, Egypt and Palestine. He wasn’t able to return to his University studies until 1923 as the War Office had him engaged in educational work in the Middle East after the war ended. Anthony was eventually to spend the rest of his life working in education. He completed his M.A. in 1924 and his B.Sc. in 1926 before going to Malaya to work on a large rubber estate for five years, returning home in 1932 to become an assistant lecturer in Botany at Dundee University. He began his connection with RBGE in 1934 when our then Regius Keeper, William Wright Smith asked him to join Edinburgh University’s teaching staff as a lecturer in Forest Botany, and any other botanical subject he was called upon to teach. During this time he developed an interest in wood anatomy and intended writing a book on the subject – indeed, the typed manuscript for this work entitled “The Identification of British Trees, Shrubs and Undershrubs by means of the Microscopic Structure of their Wood” is housed in RBGE’s archives.

2nd Lieutenant John Anthony in Llangollan, August 1916.

2nd Lieutenant John Anthony in Llangollen, August 1916.

John Anthony did eventually have a book published, albeit posthumously.  After his retirement in 1958 he and his wife worked on a flora of Sutherland, spending all his spare time exploring the botany of this county and compiling a typescript, which he did not live to see published. The Botanical Society of Scotland published it in 1976, four years after his death in 1972 at the age of 80.   It is still seen as a tribute to a modest and good humoured man, fondly remembered by the staff at RBGE who knew him.

The Album

The photograph album itself is small and plain and marked with the name and crest of the Allan Glen’s School, although the link between Anthony and that school is not known.  There are photos of Anthony’s family, his friends, views around Edinburgh including Colinton Dell, blurry locomotives on the Caledonian railway, and of course, Anthony and some of his fellow cadets and soldiers, often in very relaxed, laid back poses, enjoying the calm before the storm.

John Anthony and his fellow cadets enjoy tea in the camp, likely Peebles, c.1915.

John Anthony and his fellow cadets enjoy tea in the camp, likely Peebles, c.1915.

Anthony and his friends take some time off from training, c.1915.

Anthony and his friends take some time off from training, c.1915.

2nd Lieutenant Anthony with Lieutenant Edwards, Captain Evans and a very relaxed Colonel Gavin in Oswestry, August 1916; around a month before Anthony is sent to the Western Front.

2nd Lieutenant Anthony with Lieutenant Edwards, Captain Evans and a very relaxed Colonel Gavin in Oswestry, August 1916; around a month before Anthony was sent to the Western Front.

Jun 212016
 

DSC_0002-LR Inverleith House is celebrating three decades of contemporary art and botanical exhibitions at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh with a presentation of rarely seen posters and invitation cards presented in the John Hope Gateway’s Gateway Gallery. Representing over 150 exhibitions and encompassing many more events, this exhibition demonstrates the significance both internationally and in Scotland of  ‘the most ideal gallery in Britain’.

This display preceeds I still believe in miracles an exhibition celebrating 30 years of Inverleith House which opens on Saturday 23 July. The exhibition takes its title from a work by Douglas Gordon from his 2005 solo show at Inverleith House and will feature more than forty artists including Karla Black, Louise Bourgeois, Marc Camille Chaimowicz, Dan Colen, Douglas Gordon, William Eggleston, Cerith Wyn Evans, Ian Hamilton Finlay, Luke Fowler, Isa Genzken, Philip Guston, Richard Hamilton, Andy Hope 1930, Roni Horn, Thomas Houseago, Raoul De Keyser, Andrew Kerr, Melissa Kretschmer, Jim Lambie, Mark Leckey, John McCracken, Victoria Morton, Nicolas Party, Ciara Phillips, Ed Ruscha, Robert Ryman, Tony Swain, Corin Sworn, Juergen Teller, Hayley Tompkins, Sue Tompkins, Richard Tuttle, herman de vries, Andy Warhol, Cathy Wilkes and Richard Wright as well as botanical drawings by John Hope (1725-1786) and Hugh Cleghorn (1820-1895) from the Garden’s archives and paintings of Nepalese plants by Francis Buchanan-Hamilton (1762-1829) on loan from the Linnaean Society of London.

Many of these unique posters are available for purchase at a special exhibition price for a limited time only.

DSC_0011-LR

May 312016
 
St Brigid anemone

‘I like to plant something every day!’

Ruby Collett was in her eighties when she made this remark to a younger neighbour.  A student probationer gardener at RBGE in the 1920s, Ruby was a force of nature and I’d like to share some of her experiences with plants.   During her time at RBGE she would learn much about propagating and tending new and established species.  This practical learning period no doubt helped develop this very formidable plantswoman.

Ruby Collett application

Ruby Collett Probationer Gardener Application Form

456 individuals were taken on as probationer gardeners at RBGE between 1889 and 1939. Only seven of that group (1.5 %) were women.

You can see a list of all of these probationers here.

The student probationer scheme was established in 1892 by Professor Isaac Bayley Balfour, Regius Keeper, to provide free courses of instruction in practical scientific horticulture and forestry over a period of 2½ years.  Applicants had to be aged 25 or under with at least three years working experience in gardening or forestry. In return for full time work in the garden, pay was fixed at £1 1 shilling per week with extra pay for Sunday work.  Courses of instruction were provided through evening classes taught by RBGE staff and external specialists, and on-the-job practical work.

Ruby was the seventh woman gardener to be accepted as a student probationer.  In case you are wondering here is the list of the six women who preceded her at RBGE, with their years of training. Their stories all have interest, and may appear in future blogposts.

  • Constance Ida Hay Currie (1873-1952). 1897. Eventually emigrated to British Columbia where she lived with her husband E. G. Beaumont on the remote Discovery Island.
  • [Jane Torr] Lina Barker (1866-1929). 1897 to 1899. In 1900 established the first school of gardening for women in Scotland with her fellow probationer Annie Morrison as co-Principal.
  • Annie Morison (1870-1948). 1898 to 1899.
  • Amelia Jean Scott (1903-1925). 1919 to 1921. Lived within sight of RBGE and started as a probationer straight from school. Sadly died from peritonitis at a very young age.
  • Mary Ord (1895-   ) 1920 to 1923. Came to RBGE from Darlington where she had been in charge of the Alpine and Herbaceous Department at Kent & Brydon, a well-established firm of nursery and seedsmen.  Returned to Darlington, where she married A. F. T. Ord.
  • Edith Cairns (1898-   ) 1922 to 1924. Married fellow probationer William P. Dodghson in 1926 in Alberta, Canada.

Ruby’s full name was Ruby Sarah Martha Collett. She was born on a large mixed farm at Abbot’s Ripton, Huntingdonshire in 1900. Prior to arriving at RBGE in August 1924 she garnered 5 years’ practical experience working in private and collegiate gardens.

From 1919 to early 1922 Ruby worked as a gardener at Reading University and Loughborough College. During this time she gained the R.H.S. Senior Certificate – 1st Class.  At Loughborough she managed the garden and grounds of five student hostels and supervised a team of assistant lady gardeners.

J.F. Driver, Works Manager at Loughborough College gave Ruby a recommendation for her application to RBGE in which he states:

‘Besides being a good practical gardener Miss Collett has high theoretical qualifications, and has had excellent experience.’  J. F. Driver

In 1923 Ruby started as gardener in a private garden at Pampisford, Cambridgeshire, where she worked under glass and outdoors.  Her employer was Mrs Annie Hudson, the widow of P R Hudson, a significant brewer in Cambridgeshire.

She took up her place at RBGE in the August of 1924 coming from a postion at Anstey Hall, Cambridgeshire, where she was working in the glasshouses.  We know from a personal letter that she roared around Edinburgh on a motorcycle.  Ruby  excelled academically, never receiving a mark below 75 per cent and in two subjects (Systematic Botany and Meteorology) passing with full marks. When she left RBGE in February 1927, Sir William Wright Smith, Regius Keeper, noted in the certificate he issued that:

‘Her work in the Royal Botanic Garden has been performed carefully, skilfully and intelligently and her conduct has been in every respect satisfactory.’

On leaving RBGE Ruby was the first woman to gain a position with the Ministry of Agriculture as an Assistant Inspector of Horticulture. She worked primarily among the orchards in Worcestershire.

In 1933 she re-located to Cornwall, having amassed sufficient capital to purchase a farm of eight small fields covering approximately 12 acres and two cob-walled cottages, to become a producer of good quality flowers and fruit, a long held ambition of hers.  The farm was located at Quenchwell, Perranwell, halfway between Truro and Falmouth.  In March 1934 seed of forty-five shrubs and herbaceous plants, including Lilium regale, Ceanothus veitchianus, Spiraea douglasii  and Meconopsis wallichii, were sent to Ruby from RBGE.

Ruby wrote about her experiences during the first six years’ of her flower farm in an article published in the August 1939 issue of The Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture.

Before Ruby purchased her farm she was advised to make sure the farm was saleable in the event of her failing to make good. Undaunted, she set to work, but with a plan that every endeavour had to be made to make both buildings and equipment serve more than one purpose.  She also improved her farm by building a cottage for her foreman, improving her own cottage and building additional storage and picking sheds, a garage and water tanks.

As well as working on her farm herself, Ruby employed a small staff of three and took on horticultural students and employed seasonal workers for flower harvesting.  One of the first things she tried to assess was whether mechanical or horse power was the best way of powering work on the farm. A rototiller won out over the horses, after some trying experiences. By 1939 the rototiller had more than paid for itself. Ruby continued using the rototiller for four years after which she purchased a tractor for ploughing, rolling and harrowing.

St Brigid anemone

St Brigid anemone

By 1939 the crops cultivated included over an acre of anemones, the same of daffodils and 2 acres of strawberries, with smaller areas of violets, raspberries, blackberries and gooseberries. In the early years of the farm the number of strawberry plants sold was between 50,000 to 70,000 per year and the number of viola plants sold was between 20,000 and 50,000.

Here are a few of Ruby’s observations from her article:

‘I have worked up a connection for plants of high quality, which are despatched to all parts of Great Britain.’

‘I aim at the best; there is no stinting where manures and cultivators are concerned.’

‘I would like to emphasize the great importance of introducing the very best strains and stocks for the initial plantings.’

‘Any success I have achieved I attribute to the experience which comes from being born on a large mixed farm, to having had a horticultural training followed by a varied practical experience, to having enjoyed good health and to the possession of a large capacity for hard work.’

Sometime in the late 1940s Ruby re-located within Cornwall moving to Rosmergy, in the Parish of St. Agnes, in the Wheal Lawrence Valley, a former centre of Cornish copper-mining.  Here she established another flower farm from five fields. Ruby’s enthusiasm for plants meant that she was a very hard worker who expected more of her employees than was perhaps the norm. Someone who worked for her for a short period recalled her as a ‘hard taskmaster.’  One thing that Ruby grew commercially at Rosmergy was shrubs including Pittosporum. Amongst the seeds sent from RBGE in 1934 were seeds of P. crassifolium and P. divaricatumP. crassifolium, a native of New Zealand, was particularly suited to the climate of the south-west and has naturalised in some places in Cornwall.

Pittosporum crassifolium

Pittosporum crassifolium

In a letter, Mrs Isobel Burrows, whose mother was a friend of Ruby’s, describes the beauty of the garden Ruby created around her cottage situated only half a mile from the sea. Ruby planted a protective shelter belt of pines, olearia, griselinia and elaeagnus, within which she grew single specimen trees such as Cornus kousa, eucalyptus and copper beech.  In front of the cottage were a tree paeony and a flowering cherry.  Fuchsia magellanica provided an edging on one side of the drive up to the cottage. The garden was particularly attractive in winter when camellias and Rhododendron ‘Christmas Cheer’ flowered.  Gunnera planted by Ruby is remarked on by walkers in the area to this day.

A keen golfer, Ruby played the game well into her eighties. She created a practice green on part of her land, and tended it with  a particular pride, offering sixpence to any child who could discover a dandelion growing on it.

Ruby reached the age of 90 but sadly died in her garden, in tragic circumstances, on Boxing Day 1990.

Anne Meredith looks in more detail at Miss Collett’s experiences in her thesis ‘Middle class women and horticultural education, 1890-1939’ Ph.D. University of Sussex (2001). [EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.390831]

My thanks are due to Mr Tom Thompson (St Agnes Museum (www.stagnesmuseum.org.uk)), Mrs Isobel Burrows, and Mr & Mrs John Branfield for providing information about Miss Collett and her garden and nursery at Rosmergy.

Written by Graham Hardy, May 2016

Apr 302016
 

In 1916, RBGE lost two members of staff in France during the First World War. The first was George Blackmore who was killed in the trenches of the western front in March, the second was Arthur Henry Jones who died in hospital in April 1916, but he wasn’t an infantry man.

Papaver rhoeas from A. Dietrich's Flora Regni Borussici. III; T.185. Berlin, 1835

Papaver rhoeas from A. Dietrich’s Flora Regni Borussici. III; T.185. Berlin, 1835

Arthur Jones was born in Dymock in Gloucestershire in around 1882 to Thomas and Charlotte. He became a porter in a workhouse before becoming a labourer at the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh in December 1911. On the outbreak of war Jones enlisted immediately, joining the Royal Army Medical Corps in London on the 5th August 1914. He quickly entered the theatre of war, crossing to France as part of the British Expeditionary Force on the 25th August 1914. Jones ended up working as a ward orderly in the No.11 General Hospital which was situated in the Imperial Hotel on the sea front in Boulogne. The book ‘A Doctor on the Western Front’ (edited by John Hutton, 2013), comprised of the wartime diary entries of Captain Henry (Harry) Barton Owens, describes this hospital, from the point of view of a doctor. He was posted there briefly in September 1915 and referred to life there as

“a complete change in every way. I was able to refresh my memory in medicine and surgery… We lived in luxury in a very nice house let to us fully furnished with bed rooms, bathroom, billiard room, dining room, smoking room, etc. on the sea front at the north end of the town. We bathed in the sea whenever we wanted to, played a good deal of tennis and altogether had a good time and were not too busy.

I suspect things would have been somewhat different for the orderlies, but still, one wonders what caused Arthur Jones’s death if he was not fighting in the trenches? One would imagine that disease would be the most likely cause, but the answer came on the website of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission where one of the documents associated with Jones’s grave in the Etaples Military Cemetery states that he had attained the temporary rank of Acting Corporal, Army Health at the time of his death at the young age of 34 on the 30th April 1916. The cause of death was given as heart failure.

Jones's service card stored in the RBGE Archives

A.H. Jones’s Service Card, RBGE Archives

(RBGE records state that Jones died on the 19th May 1916, but it looks as if we must be mistaken)

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Again I am deeply indebted to Garry Ketchen for his genealogical research into the men that appear on RBGE’s War Memorial and his kind permission to use it in these Botanics Stories.

Mar 082016
 

Bertha Chandler (1885-1961)

Bertha Chandler

Photograph of Bertha Chandler published in Transactions Royal Scottish Society of Arts, 24 (1), October 1939. (Reproduced with permission of RSSA)

In 1901 did Andrew Carnegie know, by donating $10 million to create the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, that his legacy would assist pioneering women science graduates and researchers, like RBGE’s own Bertha Chandler? Carnegie’s gift came less than ten years after the Scottish universities had begun to admit women as students on the same terms as men, following the passage of the Universities (Scotland) Act, 1889.

Bertha was born in India, whilst her father was in the Army serving overseas. The family moved to Edinburgh in 1900 where Bertha and her sister Edith Kate Chandler (Dawson) were pupils at the Edinburgh Ladies’ College, latterly known as The Mary Erskine School. Edith gained her medical degrees from Edinburgh in 1921 and went on to be an internationally recognised pathologist, whose papers are now held at the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.

On leaving school Bertha competed for and gained a Heriot Bursary to assist with the cost of her studies at the University of Edinburgh. There were a number of Heriot Bursaries, including two for women students.

Bertha undertook a joint Arts/Science course of studies and in 1907 graduated with an MA. In July 1908 she also gained a Bachelor of Science (BSc), with special distinction in Botany. Studies in Chemistry and Geology also formed part of Bertha’s joint degree. When Bertha studied at the University of Edinburgh, the Botany Department was based at RBGE and the Professor of Botany, Dr Isaac Bayley Balfour, was also the Regius Keeper of RBGE.

Botany class photo

The RBGE Archive contains this photograph of the Advanced Botany Class, Winter 1907-08, University of Edinburgh. Professor Bayley Balfour is seated in the front row centre, and Bertha is on his left [RBGE Archive]

Sporophyte from notebook

Drawing of ‘Sporophyte’ from Bertha’s Practical Botany Class notebook for the Practical Botany class 1907-08 [RBGE Archive]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

From 1908 Bertha worked at RBGE supervised by Bayley Balfour. During that time she undertook the research and experiments that would lead to her obtaining the degree of Doctor of Science (DSc) from the University of Edinburgh in 1913. Bayley Balfour had been the first Edinburgh University student to gain this postgraduate degree. Bertha made Scottish academic history as the first female graduate to attain it.

Bertha’s thesis is on ‘The Theory and Practice of Vegetative Propagation in Flowering Plants.’ A copy of the thesis, with Bertha’s handwritten and signed declaration that the work submitted was done by her, is held in RBGE Archive. The thesis covers dicotyledons, monocotyledons and conifers in turn, and examines stem-cuttings, leaf cuttings and root cuttings as means of vegetative propagation for each group. The thesis is heavily illustrated with diagrams drawn by Bertha, also photographs taken by her and her RBGE colleague Robert Moyes Adam.

Acanthus montana

Photographs in Bertha’s D.Sc. showing ‘Leaf cuttings of Acanthus montana.’ [RBGE Archive]

Bertha was appointed a Carnegie Research Scholar in 1909, thus directly benefitting from Andrew Carnegie’s generosity. The same year she was proposed as a member of the Scottish Horticultural Association. For a number of years Bertha was a member of the SHA’s Scientific Committee.

In 1910 Bertha gained the Anderson-Henry Prize. This prize was awarded for the best and approved essay on a botanical subject proposed by the Professor of Botany, the Curator of the Royal Botanic Garden, and the President of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh.

From 1904-1914 Bayley Balfour re-organised the management of the RBGE collections, creating four Assistant posts, with responsibility for the daily running of the Library, the Museum, the Studio, and the Laboratories. In the period 1912-13 Bertha became the first Assistant in Charge of the Laboratories at RBGE.

RBGE elevation

Section of architectural plan of Laboratory Building, RBGE. [RBGE Archive]

Bertha stopped working at RBGE after her marriage in 1913, and in 1914 gave birth to a daughter, Doris; but did not give up on practical and research based science. Her husband Charles Norman Kemp (1883-1975) had graduated with a B.Sc. (Edinburgh) in 1906, his scientific interests lay more in the area of physics and chemistry than biology. He developed a specific interest in the new field of X-rays, particularly their use in industry but also as applied to medicine.

X-rays entered Bertha’s life at this point also, as during the First World War she worked at the Second General Military Hospital at Craigleith, Edinburgh, operating X-ray equipment. She later gave illustrated lectures on the topic ‘X-Rays in a Military Hospital.’ In 1919 Bertha was elected a member of the Röntgen Society (founded 1897), which in 1927 amalgamated with the British Institute of Radiology.

Another area that Bertha studied was bio-luminescence. Her earliest published paper on ‘Luminosity in Plants’, was published in the Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, volume 23 in 1908. Bertha continued to deliver illustrated lectures on this subject during the 1920s and 1930s. Frustratingly the RBGE Archive contains only part of the manuscript of one of these lectures, donated by Bertha’s daughter.

The Royal Scottish Society of Arts was founded in 1821 (and still active today) to promote and encourage the useful arts in Scotland. The ‘useful arts’ covers all areas of applied science, technology, engineering and manufacture. In 1921 Bertha applied to the Council of the RSSA for a grant from the Keith Bequest to undertake ‘Investigations in the Applications of X-rays to the examination of Materials, with special reference to the radiographic appearances of abnormal conditions in Timber.’

Bertha reviewed the literature and started some experiments but in 1922 submitted a progress report which notes that her research:

‘was interrupted for some time by the transference of attention to the X-Ray examination of coal … This field of investigation also was found to have been almost entirely neglected, and was soon seen to have important and far-reaching possibilities’

Bertha does not appear to have undertaken research after this date, however, she did continue to give illustrated lectures and attend scientific symposia. She also served on the Council of the RSSA for two periods, 1926-1929 and 1938-1943. Bertha died on 23 November 1961.

It is fitting that we celebrate and acknowledge her contribution to RBGE and her practical research across a variety of scientific disciplines through the first decades of women science graduates in Edinburgh.

 

Written by Graham Hardy, Serials Librarian, RBGE

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